Co-ordinate (dative covalent) bonding. A covalent bond is formed by two atoms sharing a pair of electrons. The atoms are held together because the electron pair is attracted by both of the nuclei. In the formation of a simple covalent bond, each atom supplies one electron to the bond - but that doesn't have to be the case.
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2. Covalent Bonds. Sometimes atoms will share electrons instead of transferring them between the two atoms. This sharing allows both atoms to fill their outermost shell while forming a very strong bond between the atoms. Elements such as carbon (C) and Silicon (Si) form strong covalent bonds.
II. Polar Covalent: This type of bond occurs when there is unequal sharing (between the two atoms) of the electrons in the bond. Molecules such as NH3 and H2O are the usual examples. The typical rule is that bonds with an electronegativity difference less than 1.6 are considered polar.
Both of these are covalent bonds. Above 1.7, the bond would be considered ionic. In the case of water, the electronegativity of oxygen is 3.5, while that of hydrogen is 2.1.
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